The Wauthy family...

Disclaimer: this page has an amount of opinion, assumption, deduction and speculation that makes the information susceptible to error. Readers should use due diligence in accepting anything shown as fact. This page has been provided with good intention and has been compiled on a "best effort" basis. Hopefully future discoveries will expand the fact base and any misinformation can be weeded out. The year the page was created is 2023.

I have also taken the opportunity to examine the life and times of these ancestors. We can't know what all they may have gone through in their particular lives, but some effort has been made to provide context.

Note: this story should be read in conjunction with the Thibeau family story, with the Thibeau story first (time permitting).

To begin...

The name Wauthy has German origins. Wauthy is a diminutive of Wauthier which is the Belgian version of Walters. Wikipedia: "The name "Walter" originates from the Old German wald ("rule") + heri ("warrior)." The name was brought to England with the Normans and to Belgium with the Franks.

Variations of the name include : Wauthy, Wauty, Wathy, Wautier, Wauthi, Wauthier, Wautiez, Wauthoz, Wautot, Hautier, Hauthier, Hauthy.

Wikipedia: "Gauthier ... is a French name of Germanic origin, corresponding to the English given name Walter."

Incidence of use...

The Wauthy surname has its highest incidence of use in Belgium (of which 87% are in the Walloon region), with France and Canada and the U.S. the only other countries with any significant use. 1 in 25,662 Belgians have the surname Wauthy. In neighbouring France, 1 in 1,207,686 people have the surname Wauthy.

M. Wauthy, a relation who has done extensive research on the Wauthy family, (MW for short), states: "There was always an unsubstantiated understanding in the history of my family that maybe we ended up in Wallonia Belgium to escape Catholic persecution in England and to avoid the English Civil War. It would make sense why my paper trail starts in 1663 in Belgium."

In this image set of interactive maps from, one can see the progression over time and location of the incidence of the name Wauthy.

Time slider set to zero, should be showing the earliest use of the name.
Time slider set to 1800, shows the areas of expanded use of the name.
Time slider set to 1800, zoomed out to show how local is the use.

Excerpts from a brief history of Belgium, more at Eupedia...

The French language... "Around the 2nd and 3rd centuries, a Germanic tribe known as the Franks descended from Scandinavia toward the Low Countries. Surrendering to Emperor Maximian (250-310), the Salian Franks became Laeti (allies of the Romans), and were allowed to settle in Germania Inferior. They were the first Germanic tribe to settled permanently on Roman land, and thus the first to become latinised, integrating quickly, and providing numerous generals and consuls to the Empire. The Frankish way of speaking Latin eventually evolved into a new language, French."

Renaissance & Habsburg rule... "In the early 1500's, the monarchies of Habsburg (from Austria), Burgundy and Spain were united under the reign of Charles V of Habsburg, in the largest European empire ever since Roman times (which had ended 1000 years earlier) and until Napoleon (300 years later). It included present-day Spain, Austria, eastern France, the Benelux, southern Italy, some Northern Italian city-states, Germany and the newly acquired American colonies, from Mexico to Peru. Charles V was born in Ghent, in the Dutch-speaking part of Belgium, but was educated in French by his Burgundian entourage. He first ruled his empire from Brussels, then travelled extensively around his European possession and settled in Spain, where his stayed even after retiring, until his death.

The empire was subsequently divided between Charles V's son Philip II, who became king of Spain and its American colonies, Southern Italy and the Netherlands (i.e. most of the present-day Benelux), and Charles V's brother, Maximilian, who received the Holy Roman Empire and the Austrian Empire."

Independence... "Belgium remained under Spanish dominion until 1713, when it was ceded back to Austria following the War of Spanish Succession. The region was officially part of the Kingdom of Germany, within the Holy Roman Empire, until 1792, when it was annexed to France. The French completely reorganised the political division of the Low Countries into départements of similar sizes, which were the forerunners of the modern provinces.

In 1815, after Napoleon's final defeat at Waterloo, 17km south of central Brussels, Belgium came briefly under Dutch rule in what was called the United Kingdom of the Netherlands.

15 years later, the Catholic Belgians revolted against the Protestant-dominated Dutch administration and were granted independence. A German prince known as Leopold of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, was elected to become the first King of the Belgians. He was the uncle of Queen Victoria of Great Britain."


Wallonia is the French-speaking southern region of Belgium. The east-west division is roughly 10 km. south of Brussels. All borders in Europe are quite irregular, unlike, say, the borders of Saskatchewan with Alberta or Manitoba, and unlike many U.S. states - for reasons of historical legacies, political agreements and treaties, post-war settlements, geography, ethnicity, language and commerce, I expect.

Wikipedia: "According to the region's official website, after Julius Caesar conquered Gaul, its inhabitants became the Gallo-Romans and were called the "Walha" by their Germanic neighbours, from whence the name Wallonia comes. The Walha started speaking Vulgar Latin instead of their Celtic dialects. At that time, Wallonia was on the border between Germanic-speaking and Latin-speaking territories." (The Gallic Wars were waged between 58 BC and 50 BC.)

Wikipedia: "Namur stands at the confluence of the rivers Sambre and Meuse and straddles three different regions: – Hesbaye to the north, Condroz to the south-east, and Entre-Sambre-et-Meuse to the south-west. The city of Charleroi is located to the west. The language spoken is French." Charleroi is the second largest city in Wallonia. (Liège is the largest.) "Founded by the Spanish Netherlands in 1666, and named after the king of Spain at the time, Charleroi once had a large fortress that presided over the Upper Town."

Austria's possession of the Low Countries...

To help understand the period of time from 1700 to 1815 Belgians lived through, I asked ChatGPT: "When did Austria come into possession of the Low Countries, and what happened after that?"

ChatGPT: "Austria's possession of the Low Countries, which include present-day Belgium, the Netherlands, Luxembourg, and parts of northern France, occurred during the War of the Spanish Succession (1701-1714). The sequence of events leading to Austria's control over these territories can be summarized as follows:

War of the Spanish Succession (1701-1714): The War of the Spanish Succession was a major European conflict triggered by the question of who would succeed to the Spanish throne after the death of the last Habsburg King of Spain, Charles II. The war involved multiple European powers, including Austria (under the Habsburg Monarchy), France, Britain, and others.

Treaty of Utrecht (1713): The Treaty of Utrecht, signed in 1713, was one of the peace treaties that concluded the War of the Spanish Succession. It had several provisions that reshaped the map of Europe:

The Spanish Netherlands, which included parts of the Low Countries, were ceded to the Austrian Habsburgs.

The southern part of the Spanish Netherlands became known as the Austrian Netherlands and remained under Habsburg control.

Austrian Rule of the Low Countries: Austria continued to rule over the Austrian Netherlands (parts of modern Belgium and Luxembourg) for most of the 18th century. This period brought relative stability and economic development to the region under Habsburg administration.

Brabant Revolution (1789-1790): In the late 18th century, during the era of the French Revolution, unrest and revolutionary sentiment began to spread in the Austrian Netherlands. The Brabant Revolution (1789-1790) was one such uprising, reflecting the desire for political representation and greater rights.

French Revolutionary Wars (1792-1802): The French Revolutionary Wars, which included conflicts between France and various European powers, had a direct impact on the Austrian Netherlands. French revolutionary forces invaded the region in 1792 and occupied it.

Annexation by France (1795): In 1795, the Austrian Netherlands were officially annexed by revolutionary France, marking the end of Austrian rule in the region. The territory was incorporated into the French Republic.

Napoleonic Era: Belgium and the Low Countries remained under French control during the Napoleonic era as part of the French Empire.

Congress of Vienna (1814-1815): Following Napoleon's defeat, the Congress of Vienna aimed to reorganize Europe. As a result, Belgium was integrated into the United Kingdom of the Netherlands, which combined the Northern and Southern Netherlands into a single entity.

This historical sequence outlines how the Low Countries transitioned from Austrian possession to French annexation during the late 18th century, ultimately leading to their reintegration into a larger political entity after the Napoleonic Wars."

A map of the County of Namur, Belgium, 1789...

This snip (below) is from a very high resolution map at The map is dated 1789. Its title is A Map of The Austrian Possession in the Nether Lands or Low Countries. Navigating the map at its source will increase the detail. Click either image to enlarge.

To make things easier to find, I added grid co-ordinates to the image. For these locations of interest, the co-ordinates are... <> Charleroi, G1,2 (streetview) <> Namur (the town), F6 (sv) <> Biesme, H3 (sv) <> Sart S'Eustache, H4 (sv) <> Gerpinnes, H3 (sv) <> Rienne, P6 (sv) <> Gedinne, P7 (sv). Gougnies, H3 (sv) is about the midway point between Sart S'Eustache and Gerpinnes on the map. Hymiée, I3 (sv) is about 1.5 km. SSE of Gerpinnes on the map. Fromiée, I3 (sv) is about 3 km. east of Gerpinnes on the map. There are many buildings still standing that are old enough to have been seen routinely by our ancectors.

Rienne can be found by association with Gedinne, it does not appear on this map as a name. Rienne is 4 km. west of Gedinne, about half the distance to Willerzie. Reinne is also 52 km. almost due south from Namur, and about 5 km. from the border with France. Biesme is about 23 km. southwest of Namur. Brussels is about 53 km. northwest of Namur. (All estimations as the kestrel flies.)

Grid squares are less than 5 km by 5 km., with some variance on the old map to a modern day Google map. Rienne does appear on the modern map at sufficient zoom.

In the bigger picture, Rienne is about 200 km. northeast of Paris. And Rienne is about 200 km. from the English Channel, the nearest body of water of consequence.

To use these places in a statement, an example would be: Sart-Eustache, in the municipality of Fosses-la-Ville, province of Namur (a county in 1789), Wallonia region, Belgium. Another would be: Rienne, in the municipality of Gedinne, province of Namur, Wallonia region, Belgium."Wallonia is a region of Belgium. As the southern portion of the country, Wallonia is primarily French-speaking and accounts for 55% of Belgium's territory, but only a third of its population."

Use your browser's zoom percent feature when viewing. These are large images with lots of detail.

For the Google map (below): this link should produce an image showing all of these locations in relation to each other. Walking distance is 80 km., just 18 hours. Including Beauraing makes it a bit longer but keeps the route within Belgium. The distance from Biesme to Reinne is about 60 km (44 km. as the kestrel flies).

youtube video: European Regions, TV Series - Wallonia. (AER - Assembly of European Regions.)

ChatGPT: "In the 18th century, the area near Gerpinnes, Biesme, Fromeé, Hymiée, and Sart-Eustache in Wallonia, Belgium, was a picturesque and rural landscape. This region featured rolling hills, meandering streams, and dense forests, providing an inviting backdrop for the agrarian communities that thrived there. Quaint villages and traditional Belgian architecture, including charming churches and rustic homes, dotted the landscape. Life was deeply connected to the land, with agriculture being the primary occupation. The serene ambiance of the area offered a peaceful escape from the challenges of the time, allowing residents to embrace the natural beauty and simplicity of the Ardennes region in 18th-century Wallonia. The area near Rienne in Wallonia, Belgium, shares the same picturesque and rural charm."

M. Wauthy: "My direct patrilineal line to the early 1800s owned small property and were not primarily farmers. They were business owners, government workers, intellectuals. I'm not sure what exactly was going on in the 1600s and 1700s. They were probably renters of land from the local lord. There is a Sart-Eustache castle where the local lord lived. He probably rented out his land to people like Remy Wauthy who primarily farmed it."

Connecting to the Wauthy family...

In the summer of 2023, I was sent information from Wauthy family member/researcher MW about a connection between the Wauthy family and the Thibeau family. MW had come to the conclusion that the Wauthy family of Wallonia, Belgium had a connection to a living descendant of the Thibeau family of River Bourgeois, Richmond County, Nova Scotia, and he wanted to know how this could be. The most I could offer at the time was information on the oldest person known in Thibeau ancestry in River Bourgeois. This person, Jean Jacques (Jacob) Thibeau, had been a dead end in this family for as long as I had known about him, 20+ years, with nothing known about his origins outside of appearing suddenly in the Cape Breton region around 1824.

Researcher Paul Touesnard regarded JJT as the literal father of all of the Thibeaus in River Bourgeois. "Paul Touesnard: "The Thibeaus of River Bourgeois: All of the Thibeaus from River Bourgeois are descended from one man: Jean Jacques (Jacob) Thibeau."

PT had few facts, most of which were drawn from an 1824 land grant petition for 200 acres of land in River Bourgeois. Jacob Chibaut, age 33 years, married with two children, had lived ten years in the province. (The signature on the actual petition plainly shows Thibaut, though.)

There was family folklore - about JJT's having been in the military, that he may have had a uniform and some memorabilia in the attic; and, that he had an accent that was hard to understand.

PT speculated that JJT may have been a deserter of either the War of 1812 or the Napoleonic Wars going on in Europe, or he may have been a migrant fisherman, perhaps from Spain. Having a Spanish connection would not be surprising for the times. With something he wrote, PT pointed me to the 1817-18 Nova Scotia which had an entry for Jacob Tiboo that aligned with the petition. It stated that JJT was American, which was either an enumerator's error or an attempt to mislead.

Over several days and many emails, I worked to expand this knowledge of JJT. MW added information from Harriet (Henriette) MacDonald, the wife of a grandson of JJT, that advanced the notion of a military connection, and, specifically, desertion for mistreatment on a naval warship. She also had stated plainly that the village name Thibeauville was in honour of JJT, and was centered on the original land grant. All but one other family who would live in Thibeauville in its short history would be named Thibeau. To read more about what Harriet MacDonald had to say, visit the Thibeau page and locate the section entitled "Hand-me-downs".

MW also provided a French army military record for a person named Jean Joseph Thibaut that he had concluded was about as close as one might come to finding a "Thibaut" to meet his requirements. Jean Joseph Thibeau (JJosT) was born in Wallonia, Belgium before the territory was annexed by France in 1795. JJosT was born in 1787, JJT was born in 1791 (1824 minus 33). JJosT had deserted, was given a five year sentence, and would have served the time by 1814. JJT purportedly arrives in Nova Scotia in 1814. Military and civil records of JJosT in France or Belgium after his sentencing in 1809 have not been found to date. No records for JJT reference anything before 1814. The problem? While there might possibly be a connection between JJT and JJosT, there is no DNA link from JJosT to any Wauthy family members, which is what the search was intended to find. MW was left to wonder if something happened between the two named families in Wallonia that could result in a DNA link between them, that would show a name change from Wauthy to Thibeau. Working from the direction of Thibeau back to Wauthy had not found anything.

For much more about Jean Jacques (Jacob) Thibeau, visit the Thibeau page.

DNA evidence...

MW has a Y-chromosome DNA test result that shows an "irrefutable conclusive" connection to a living sixth cousin once removed. Both individuals can be traced back to a common ancestor named Feuillen Wauthy, born November 17, 1696, in Sart-Eustache, Fosses-la-Ville, Namur, Belgium. MW and his Wauthy cousin descend from different sons of Feuillen, though. The Thibeau descendant matches closer to the cousin.

The descendant that caused the name change from Wauthy to Thibeau (or had the name change happen to him) should be a descendant of the son of Feuillen Wauthy that is an ancestor of MW's cousin.

Since the Thibeau descendant can be traced back to 1814 immigrant Jean Jacques (Jacob) Thibeau, and there has yet to be a suitable Thibeau descendant candidate found in Wallonia, Belgium to pick the story up from, the search did need to swing over to finding a male Wauthy who:

  • was a descendant of the particular son of Feuillen Wauthy who is an ancestor of the living Thibeau DNA match
  • was probably born in Wallonia, likely lived there, likely had family there
  • had reason to change his surname, and perhaps his given names
  • had reason to choose Thibeau to be his new surname, and Jean Jacques as his new given names
  • did not have any documented history in Europe that would conflict with his history in the New World
  • might have circumstantial connections - for such things as description, occupation, religion, upbringing, social habits
  • might reveal something of themselves in things like their skills or abilities (or inabilities), or their choice of children's names

This Wauthy male should also match up with things believed about JJT, keeping in mind that, for someone on the run or wishing to change his identity, the best lie is closest to the truth. He may:

  • have been in the military, and may have deserted (if he is from Wallonia, it would be the French military)
  • have some kind of a Spanish connection - from there, spent time there, associated with or worked with Spanish people
  • may have been a fisherman from Spain, the Basques having a long history of fishing off Canada's coast
  • have an accent that was hard for Nova Scotians (mostly English-speaking) to understand
  • have been about age 33 in 1824 (to concur with the petition for the land grant)

And this is who MW had found...

Chronology of events for Louis Joseph Wauthy...

MW's candidate was Louis Joseph Wauthy, born April 6, 1788, in Biesme, Mettet, Namur, Wallonia - born there, lived there, had family there.

Louis can be traced back on a patrilineal line to Feuillen WAUTHY (born 1696, died 1747) through his father Pierre Joseph WAUTHY (born 1754, died 1807) and his grandfather Pierre WAUTHY (born 1726, died 1794).

LW was in the military. He was conscripted at the age of 19 into the occupying French Army, 19th Line Infantry Regiment, for the year 1808. He arrived at the corps on what appears to be September 19th, 1807. Registrant # 4,713 in a series of registrations numbering 3,001 to 5,973 that took place between June 28, 1806 and November 6, 1808.

SHD/GR 21 YC 171 - "service registers for non-commissioned officers and enlisted men of the line infantry (1802 to 1815)". LW is in YC 171. (Is YC a battalion within a regiment? Is GR group?)

For future reference, for any service person in France...

...the following is available. This is a difficult site, use a webpage translator if you need one...

The sets of records available include: Personnel registers of the Ancien Régime (1682-1793); Service registers of non-commissioned officers and enlisted men of the Imperial Guard (1799-1815); Service registers of non-commissioned officers and enlisted men of the Line Infantry (1802-1815).

The full page this was taken from is available at this external link (page numbered 287, it is the 290th page of the 554-page set). And it is also stored locally on this site. Pages 1 through 3 of this document set are bureaucratic instructions for filling out the forms. Notably, page one states that these registrants are for the "19 régiment d'infanterie de ligne" (19th Line Infantry Regiment). 6 records per page ending on full page 503, or 500 pages of registrations, but the last registration number is 5,973 so there must be some incomplete pages. (After a brief investigation, having two registrations numbering 3,755 and two numbered 3,756 doesn't help.) Page 504 has a form that looks like it is relieving someone of their duties. The last 49 pages have the surnames grouped by first letter, with the groups in alpha sequence.

Taille (height) : 1.71 meters (5' 7") (average)
Visage (face) : rond (round) Front (forehead) : bau, ban, bas (low)?
Yeux (eyes) : grise (grey) Nez (nose) : long (long)
Bouche (mouth) : moyenne (medium, average) Menton (chin) : rond (round)
Cheveux (hair colour) : noir (black) Sourcils (eyebrows) : noir (black)

Besides this subjective description, the record does show Louis Joseph Wauthy was 1 meter 71 centimeters tall, not quite 5' 7". The average male height in many European countries at the time was around 5' 5" to 5' 7" for common men. Nutrition, the availability of good food, and having the means to acquire it played a part.

Below his name is written: "fils de (son of) Pierre Joseph (Wauthy) et de Marie Julienne Dimanche". "né (born) le six avril 1788 à Biesme, canton de Fosses-de-Ville, department de Sambre & Meuse". A canton was a subdivision of a department.

The department of Sambre-et-Meuse is a former French administrative district whose capital was Namur. Created in 1795, dissolved in 1814, this coincides with the occupation of Wallonia by French forces.

"Dates of arrival in the corps, and last residence of the conscripts or their replacements; voluntary enlistments; requisitioners; and incorporated soldiers." "Battalion or squadron, and company." In the column "Ranks, dates of nominations, actions of brilliance (perhaps heroism), and certificates of honor", what would make sense here would be the word fusilier, or rifleman, a fusilier referring to a soldier armed with a fusil, a type of musket or flintlock firearm.

In the column that may translate as: "Dates and Reasons for Excursions of the Corps. Death. Previous service. Wounds and war campaigns.", are details about LW deserting just 24 days after arrival.

This is the portion of the record that describes the desertion. Translated with assistance from MW: "Deserted September 25th, 1807. Judged in absentia October 30th, 1807. Acquitted June 19th, 1808." Different people made entries, it seems, which is why the handwriting is not uniform.

Why did he desert, and why was he acquitted? Both questions might be answered by the early death of his father.

"Pierre Joseph Wauthy died December 12, 1807, in Biesme, Mettet, Namur, Belgium, at age 53."

LW had just arrived on September 1st, and 24 days later he deserts. If his father had a serious sudden illness come upon him, like a heart attack or cancer, LW might have got wind of it and tried to get home.

The text goes on to say "jugé par contumace" (judged in absentia) October 30th, 1807. This may mean that LW hasn't been arrested yet or the judgment was handed down "in absentia", without legal representation or testimony by the accused. (This appears to have been overwritten on the words "acquitté le", as if the next line was being written in here out of turn.

ChatGPT: "Trial in absentia: If an accused soldier refused to attend the court-martial, was deemed unfit to stand trial due to illness or other reasons, or simply couldn't be brought to the trial for logistical reasons, (a trial) could proceed in their absence."

Being acquitted June 19th, 1808 may have cleared LW's name, but there is nothing conclusive yet to say he has returned to service until the next line, which appears to say that LW has been "passé au 22nd régiment de ligne", translated as "transferred to the 22nd Line Infantry Regiment", on May 16, 1811. Being transferred was not an individual event (i.e. not a personal request). Others in his unit have the exact same entry in their records.

While it first appeared that the 1807 desertion is the anticipated desertion of a Feuillen Wauthy descendant who would go on to change his name to Thibeau, this is not so. LW is still in the French Army, name unchanged.

In his brief time at large, LW would have experienced the difficulties in moving about as a fugitive. Anyone of his age would be expected to be in the army. One couldn't just walk about in uniform. Each man carried "livrets", identification papers, that would not be easily replaced or forged. He would have needed an alias. There would likely have been checkpoints on roadways and roving patrols. There may have been witnesses, people that LW told what he was about to do before he left camp. He would need food and shelter. His likely destination would be known. All of this would have contributed to quick capture.

ChatGPT: "During the Napoleonic era, French people typically carried identification papers known as "livrets." Livrets were small booklets or passports that served as personal identification documents. These identification papers were introduced during the French Revolution and continued to be used throughout the Napoleonic era.

Livrets contained essential information about the individual, such as their name, age, occupation, place of birth, and physical characteristics. They also included details about the person's nationality and sometimes their residence or travel permissions. Livrets were issued by local authorities, and citizens were required to carry them as a means of identification and to prove their identity when necessary.

Livrets were particularly important for military personnel, as they served as military identification documents and recorded an individual's service history, unit, and rank. For soldiers, the livret also contained records of their promotions, campaigns, and other military achievements.

Carrying a livret was mandatory in France during the Napoleonic era, and failure to present one when requested by authorities could lead to suspicion or legal consequences. The use of livrets was part of the French government's efforts to maintain control over the population, ensure security, and enforce conscription and military service during the tumultuous times of the Napoleonic era."

Three years in the 19th...

Initially, Louis Joseph Wauthy would have been instructed to report somewhere to begin his training. While there was a large center known as the Boulogne Camp on the Channel coast about 30 km from Calais that was training soldiers for a planned invasion of England, it is more likely that LW would have been told to report to a much smaller camp for new recruits closer to his home. Once basic training had been completed and he had been assessed and pronounced fit and ready, he would have been transported with others, or would have marched with others, to wherever his regiment was located at that time. "the mainstay of the French army throughout the Napoleonic wars was the long-suffering, hard-marching infantry regiments and battalions".

So, where was the 19th Line Infantry Regiment from June 19th, 1808 when Louis Joseph Wauthy was acquitted until May 16th, 1811 when he was transferred to the 22nd Line Infantry Regiment?

Regimental war records for the 19th Line Infantry Regiment can be found here: Battles and Combats.

Wikipedia: "In 1809, the French military presence in the Confederation of the Rhine was diminished as Napoleon transferred a number of soldiers to fight in the Peninsular War."

LW may have seen action in the theatre of the Confederation of the Rhine (Wagram, July 4th, 1809) before being relocated to participate in the Peninsular War with Spain and Portugal.

ChatGPT: "The 19th Line Infantry Regiment (first) arrived in the Iberian Peninsula in 1808 as part of the French forces sent to support Napoleon's brother, Joseph Bonaparte, who had been installed as the King of Spain. Their presence was met with resistance from Spanish and British forces." "The regiment likely participated in various early engagements during the Peninsular War, including battles and skirmishes against Spanish guerrillas and British forces. These early years of the war saw a series of clashes as the French sought to establish control."

Notable events in 1810 include...

Astorga (Spain), April 20th, 1810. This appears to be a reference to the French forces taking Astorga initially. Wikipedia: "Astorga was located on the flank of the French invasion of Spain and Portugal, and was meant to be used as a headquarters during the campaign. For several weeks no attack took place, as neither side had artillery enough to fight well. Shortly after the French guns arrived, however, a hole was made in the wall and the city fell shortly thereafter. The French overpowered the Spanish garrison inside and took the city on April 20, 1810; with a loss of 160 men." What is known as the Siege of Astorga took place in 1812, a Spanish victory. More below...

Siege of Almeida (Portugal), July 25th, 1810. Wikipedia: "In the siege of Almeida, the French corps of Marshal Michel Ney captured the border fortress from Brigadier General William Cox's Portuguese garrison. This action was fought in the summer of 1810 during the Peninsular War portion of the Napoleonic Wars. Almeida is located in eastern Portugal, near the border with Spain." For details about the retaking of Almeida, see below.

Battle of Busaco (Spain), September 27, 1810. See painting below. Wikipedia: "Having occupied the heights of Bussaco (a 10-mile (16 km) long ridge located at 40°20'40"N, 8°20'15"W) with 25,000 British and the same number of Portuguese, Wellington was attacked five times successively by 65,000 French under Marshal André Masséna. Masséna was uncertain as to the disposition and strength of the opposing forces because Wellington deployed them on the reverse slope of the ridge, where they could neither be easily seen nor easily softened up with artillery. The actual assaults were delivered by the corps of Marshal Michel Ney and General of Division (Major General) Jean Reynier, but after much fierce fighting they failed to dislodge the allied forces and were driven off after having lost 4,500 men against 1,250 Anglo-Portuguese casualties. However, Wellington was ultimately forced to withdraw to the Lines of Torres Vedras after his positions were outflanked by Masséna's troops."

The Lines of Torres-Vedras (Portugal). Wikipedia: "The Lines of Torres Vedras were lines of forts and other military defences built in secrecy to defend Lisbon during the Peninsular War. Named after the nearby town of Torres Vedras, they were ordered by Arthur Wellesley, Viscount Wellington, constructed by Colonel Richard Fletcher and his Portuguese workers between November 1809 and September 1810, and used to stop Marshal Masséna's 1810 offensive." National Army Museum: "In 1810, a large French army under Marshal Masséna captured the border fortresses of Ciudad Rodrigo and Almeida, and advanced into Portugal. On 27 September, Wellington's Anglo-Portuguese army checked them at Busaco. The French were driven off with the loss of 4,500 killed or wounded, compared to Anglo-Portuguese losses of about 1,250. Wellington's men then fell back behind the Lines of Torres Vedras. These defences were strengthened by a scorched earth policy to their north, which destroyed food stores and anything else useful to the French. Wellington's position was clearly impregnable. But it took Masséna six months, and the starvation of 25,000 of his men, before he decided to retreat."

This would see the French forces held outside of Lisbon until their retreat in the spring of 1811. This does seem to coincide with LW's transfer to the 22nd Line Infantry Regiment on May 16th, 1811. LW may have been one of many who were transferred to the 22nd to bolster their numbers for continued fighting in Spain. The battle of Albuera occurred on the same day suggesting the 22nd was either at that battle or the shuffle of troops involved more than just these two regiments. With the 19th withdrawing from the Lisbon area and the 22nd withdrawing from southern Spain, the transfer may have occurred somewhere along the way, perhaps near Salamanca where the 22nd would be the following year.

The 19th was pulled from Spain and is on record for being in Jacobouwo (Poland), Polostk and Borisow in 1812; Dresden and Leipzig in 1813; and Brienne, Monterau and Bar-sur-Aube in 1814 before ending the war at the Battle of Waterloo in 1815. The 19th could have been replenished in 1811 with new recruits after returning to France, to make up for losses in Portugal and for those transferred to the 22nd.

A painting by Charles Turner, Battle of Sierra de Busaco above St. Antonio de Cantaro, September 7th, 1810. Yale Center for British Art.

This illustration gives an idea of what a battlefield might have looked like. Highly visible Redcoats (English) and Bluecoats (French) in lines of fixed-bayonnet musket-firing infantry in all-weather open terrain near fortified positions. Insane heroic behaviour. Nothing like the trench warfare of WWI or the aircraft-centric warfare WWII evolved into. Today, weaponry reaches enemies often not seen with the naked eye, with terrifying force. One man with a modern military precision weapon could kill a hundred line infantrymen before they could get off a single inaccurate shot.

From the informative Ontario archives site about the War of 1812 in Canada... "The standard tactics used by the British infantry at this time was the line of battle. Men stood in two lines, shoulder to shoulder, and fired their smooth bore muskets in disciplined volleys. This tactic was dictated by the inaccuracy of the standard "brown bess" musket, and the need to achieve concentrated fire against a similar line of enemy troops. Also, a 19th century battlefield was a confused place. The muskets and artillery discharged a heavy white smoke that obscured opponents and messages from a commander to specific parts of the line could only be transmitted in writing or orally. It was not unusual for this "fog of war" to take control of the battlefield from the commanding officers and place it in the hands of chance and the individual soldiers. Theoretically one side would give way before the musketry or a final bayonet charge.

The fire of the infantry would be supplemented by light field artillery, these guns were identified by the weight of shot fired, from 3 pounds to 12 pounds, which were designed to batter defences or cut through the enemy infantry. At close range the guns could be loaded with "cannister" which turned them into large shotguns, spreading dozens of small iron balls or fragments in a wide path. First Nations warriors were employed as light troops which sought to turn the flank of an opponent."

Transferred to Napoleon's 22nd Infantry Line Regiment in Spain, May 16th, 1811...

In 1811, the 22nd Regiment, as part of the French occupying forces, would have found itself increasingly on the defensive as Wellington pushed the French out of Portugal and launched an invasion of Spain.

ChatGPT, paraphrased: "The British and Portuguese forces, with the support of Spanish allies, were implementing a strategy of attrition, gradually wearing down the French through a combination of defensive actions and periodic offensive operations.

The retaking of Almeida (Portugal), by the Allies, in May 1811. ChatGPT: "As part of their strategy to drive the French out of Portugal, the British and Portuguese forces embarked on a march towards the fortress town of Almeida, which had been under French control. The retaking of Almeida (eastern Portugal) took place (between April 14th amd May 10th, 1811), with British and Portuguese forces besieging the town. The siege eventually led to the capture of Almeida from the French."

Siege of Astorga (Spain), June 29th to August 19th, 1812. Wikipedia: "The Spanish troops of Lieutenant-General Francisco Gómez de Terán y Negrete, Marquess of Portago, started the operations, and laid siege to Astorga. The siege was part of the Allied offensive in the summer of 1812. The Spanish VI Army led by General José María Santocildes, by order of General Francisco Castaños, take the measures necessary for the recovery of Astorga. On August 18th, after a hard resistance, the French garrison surrendered to the Spaniards."

By June of 1812, Wellington was heading for Salamanca.

Battle of Salamanca (Spain), July 22nd, 1812. ChatGPT, paraphrased: "The Battle of Salamanca resulted in a decisive victory for the allied forces, primarily led by the Duke of Wellington's Anglo-Portuguese army. This victory was significant in itself, but it also boosted the morale of the allied forces. Salamanca was a strategically important city in Spain. It was a major transportation and communication hub, with several key roads converging in the region. Its capture allowed the allies to secure an important logistical and strategic center.

The Battle of Salamanca forced the French, commanded by Marshal Auguste Marmont, to retreat from the Spanish capital, Madrid. This marked a turning point in the Peninsular War, as it allowed the Spanish to reoccupy their capital and significantly weakened French control in Spain. The defeat at Salamanca was a cause of concern for Napoleon, who recognized the strategic importance of the region. It forced him to divert resources to the Iberian Peninsula, which had implications for his campaigns elsewhere in Europe.

After the battle, the allied forces pursued the retreating French armies. The victory at Salamanca set the stage for a successful allied advance into Spain and the eventual liberation of large portions of the country from French control. The Battle of Salamanca showcased the effectiveness of the British and Portuguese forces in the Peninsular War, led by Wellington. It enhanced their reputation and demonstrated their ability to defeat the French in open battle."

The left map shows the possible route taken by Louis Wauthy as part of the 19th and 22nd Regiments. There would be at least one other location in Wallonia he would have been at for recruit training. This is a walking route - Google calculates the distance to be 4,122 km over 118 days if they marched an average of eight hours a day. The last leg is undrawn as it might be confusing at first, the 22nd would have been retreating in the direction of San Sebastián following their ouster from Salamanca. There would be many more points and diversions along this route that would have extended the distance over the four years that brought LW to the siege of San Sebastián.

The right map is just a portion of a period map from 1813 showing points of interest in the Peninsular War. Torres-Vedras, Almeida, and Salamanca have green dots. Busaco does not appear on this map but its location is indicated with two green dots. Follow this link to view the full map online (David Rumsey Map Collection) to assist with overall geographical comprehension. (The full map is actually larger than the modern Google map shown here.) Use the navigation controls provided (position, zoom). has a great deal of information on the Napoleonic Wars, including details on all of the French Infantry Regiments - regimental history, officers, regimental war record, battle honours, etc.

Regimental war record for the 22nd Line Infantry Regiment: Battles and Combats.

For the 22nd, their regimental war record shows that their next notable action following Salamanca was July 7th to September 8th, 1813, the siege of San-Sebastián, but there is a gap of a year between Salamanca and San Sebastián - what filled it?

ChatGPT: "After the Battle of Salamanca in 1812, which resulted in a decisive victory for the Allied forces led by the Duke of Wellington, the Allies pursued a series of military and strategic actions in the ongoing Peninsular War against the French in Spain. Here are some of the key actions taken by the Allies after the Battle of Salamanca:

Pursuit of the French: Following the victory at Salamanca, the Allies pursued the retreating French forces, led by Marshal Auguste Marmont. This pursuit aimed to disrupt and further weaken the French position in Spain.

Capture of Madrid: The Allies continued their advance into Spain and retook the Spanish capital, Madrid, in August 1812. This was a significant achievement as it allowed the Spanish government to return to the city.

Siege of Burgos: After capturing Madrid, the Allies laid siege to the city of Burgos, which was held by a French garrison. Burgos was about half way between Salamanca and San Sebastián. The siege, however, proved to be challenging, and the Allies were eventually forced to lift it on October 31st, 1812.

Retreat to Portugal: Due to logistical challenges and the approach of a large French army under Marshal Nicolas Soult, the Allied forces were compelled to retreat from Burgos and eventually withdrew back to Portugal.

Reorganization and Reinforcement: During the retreat, the Allies reorganized their forces and received reinforcements. The retreat allowed them to regroup and prepare for future operations.

In 1813, the Allies again reentered Spain, continuing their campaign against the French. The Battle of Vitoria in June 1813 was a decisive victory for the Allies, and it further contributed to the liberation of Spain from French occupation."

These actions would explain how the 22nd LIR took until the summer of 1813 to begin their next major named engagement following Salamanca. At first, the 22nd's retreat would coincide with the Allies' advances. Fresh French forces, though, would drive the Allies back to Ciudad Rodrigo, near the Portuguese frontier. By May 20th, 1813, after reorganizing and receiving reinforcements, the Allies were ready to confront the French forces again. Under Wellington, in an effort to outflank the French Army, an Allied force of 121,000 causing the French to retreat back to Burgos "with Wellington's forces marching hard to cut them off from the road to France". Burgos was as far as the Allies had advanced in 1812. Vitoria is about half way again to San Sebastián.

Battle of Vitoria (Spain), June 21st, 1813. The account at Wikipedia is quite compelling, worth the read. While the 22nd LIR may or may not have participated in this battle, its outcome affected them. "At the Battle of Vitoria... a British, Portuguese and Spanish army under the Marquess of Wellington broke the French army under King Joseph Bonaparte and Marshal Jean-Baptiste Jourdan near Vitoria in Spain, eventually leading to victory in the Peninsular War. Because they had marched 20 miles earlier in the day before the battle, and because the French had abandoned their "booty" (estimated value $100 million in today's money), the Allies did not pursue the French that day. The 22nd was at San Sebastián when the allies laid siege to it, perhaps having been installed there from as far back as the year before.

Siege of San Sebastián (Spain), July 7th to September 8th, 1813. ChatGPT: "Following the Battle of Vitoria, the British and Portuguese forces besieged the city of San Sebastián, which was held by the French. The city eventually fell to the Allies, contributing to their overall success in the campaign."


The Siege of San Sebastián. (Watch an 18-minute documentary about this battle, entitled The Peninsular War: The Siege of San Sebastián (1813) and...) "...By the summer of 1813 the Peninsular War had reached a crisis. The Port of San Sebastián had to be captured fast if Wellington's British armies were to avoid a humiliating retreat due to lack of supplies. But in San Sebastián was the wily French commander Louis Rey. The scene was set for a classic siege campaign.

The British, Portuguese and Spanish armies of Lord Wellington had defeated the French in Spain and were poised to invade France itself. But the supply situation was critical. All of Wellington's supplies had to come from Britain to Lisbon and were then carried over bad roads, mountain ranges and dusty plains for hundreds of miles to reach the fighting front. Wellington needed a port with good harbour facilities close to the battle front. There was only one available, but it was held by a French force under the command of General Louis Rey who was desperately repairing and reinforcing the defences. The siege began on July 7, 1813..."

Wikipedia"In the siege of San Sebastián (July 7th to September 8th, 1813), part of the Peninsular War, Allied forces under the command of Arthur Wellesley, Marquess of Wellington failed to capture the city in a siege. However in a second siege the Allied forces under Thomas Graham captured the city of San Sebastián in northern Basque Country from its French garrison under Louis Emmanuel Rey. During the final assault, the British and Portuguese troops rampaged through the town and razed it to the ground."

Read a firsthand account of this time in The Journal of James Hale, by Sergeant James Hale, Ninth Regiment of Foot, published in 1826. Vitoria is first mentioned on page 104, San Sebastián on page 108.

Read a series of detail-rich volumes entitled History of The War in The Peninsula and in The South of France by W.F.P. Napier, C.B. Volume 6 has passages about the two sieges of San Sebastián in chapters I and III. PDF version is a selectable option that offers more control over the contents.

A sample passage, from page 233, about the acceptance of the loss of San Sebastián to the Allies and the leaving behind of the garrison holding the castle: " the course of the day (August 31st) general Rey's report of the assault on San Sebastián reached (Marshal General Jean-de-Dieu Soult), and at the same time he heard that general Hill was in movement on the side of St. Jean Pied de Port. This state of affairs brought reflection. San Sebastián was lost, a fresh attempt to carry off the wasted garrison from the castle would cost five or six thousand good soldiers, and the safety of the whole army would be endangered by pushing headlong amongst the terrible asperities of the crowned mountain." The French who were left to fend for themselves surrendered.

A second passage predicts the next phase of the war. "The fall of San Sebastián had given Lord Wellington a new port and point of support, had increased the value of Passages as a depôt, and let loose a considerable body of troops for field operations; the armistice in Germany was at an end, Austria had joined the allies, and it seemed therefore certain that he would immediately invade France."

The Library of Congress has a map/document entitled Plan of the siege of St. Sebastián in the year 1813. It is incredibly high resolution and contains great detail in both images and text. In part, it states: "Right Attack continued. Operations against Castle - Batteries opened 8th September. Enemy capitulated same day."

This section is relevant to the stories of both Jean Jacques (Jacob) Thibeau and Louis Joseph Wauthy. It has been put in this frame as a duplication and correlation point.


Two remaining battles in 1813 would see the French army retreating from Spain. LW's window of opportunity for arriving in Nova Scotia in 1814, to fit the "10 years in the province" as stated on the land grant petition, should have LW leaving the continent in late 1813 or early 1814.

Battle of the Pyrenees, Spain (1813): This series of battles took place in July and August 1813 along the Pyrenees Mountains as the French retreated from Spain into France. The battles were fought between the Anglo-Allied forces and the French, and the outcome was generally favorable for the Allies.

Battle of Nivelle, France (1813): In November 1813, this battle was fought between the Anglo-Allied forces and the French under Marshal Soult. The battle resulted in a victory for the Allies.

Is there evidence that Louis Joseph Wauthy deserted a second time? What better time and place than following the siege of San Sebastian? French troops would be without command following surrender. Could LW have slipped away, gone west along the coast, found a ship to travel on or work for, and headed to North America? While he lived inland in the Namur area, and may or may not have known his starboard side from his aft, I'd bet there were entry-level dirty jobs he could do for which there was a demand. He wouldn't need papers, and wouldn't be sought after in English-speaking destinations. He could create a new identity if he so wished. There would be no paper trail of his crossing. A difficult accent could have been picked up working for a while at least on a Spanish ship.

ChatGPT: "In the Basque Country and other regions of Europe in the early 19th century, personal identification was often established through other means, such as local knowledge, oral testimony, or recognition by community members and authorities. Small, close-knit communities like fishing villages often knew their residents well, and formal identification papers were not a common requirement for daily activities."

Of the things believed about Jean Jacques Thibeau (military, desertion, Spanish connection, fisherman, difficult accent), having lived and fought in French-occupied Spain for several years until deserting and leaving the continent for the New World could satisfy multiple criteria. LW may have learned to speak Spanish well enough to impersonate a Spanish citizen if questioned.

After the siege of San-Sebastián, what remained of the 22nd Line Infantry Regiment was pulled out of Spain. They were at Lutzen, Bautzen, Katzbach, Leipzig and Hanau later that year; in Montmirail, Vauchamps, Gue-a-Tresmes, Craonne, Fere-Champenoise in 1814; and Ligny, Wavre and Namur in 1815. The war would end at Waterloo, Belgium, just 40 km north of Beisme, where LW was born.

Retreat, desertion, or surrender?

Following the siege of San Sebastián, infantryman Louis Joseph Wauthy had three paths. Was he in the part of the 22nd Regiment that retreated into France? Was he part of the force left behind in San Sebastián that surrendered? Did he desert somewhere near San Sebastián and head out on his own, perhaps not alone, taking advantage of his location and perhaps making his way to Nova Scotia by Spanish fishing boat?

Deserting prior to San Sebastián would have provided an opportunity for the act to be documented while the French command there was still holding itself together. Deserting when his regiment was retreating may not have offered such an opportunity. The army may simply have lost track of him - dead, alive, injured, awol, prisoner, status unknown. He could make his way to Nova Scotia undetected if so.

If LW was part of the French retreat into France, his opportunity for desertion and avoiding detection would be getting smaller. And he would be getting closer to home, making it a more likely destination to run off to. He would also be gradually becoming more aware that an end to the war was near - if he could survive it. So, why desert?

What of the group that surrendered? What if LW was part of that group, what would have become of him? In that era, there were some odd conventions for prisoners of war. In negotiated terms of surrender, prisoners could be afforded safe passage back to their own territory. Prisoners could be exchanged under terms and conditions of release and repatriation. Prisoners could be paroled, allowed to return to their own countries with conditions on where they could go and what they could do. Negotiations might involve diplomats and envoys from the conflicted parties or from neutral nations. The captors had the upper hand in these negotiations but the captives were not without leverage. If routing them out from wherever they might be barracaded would mean loss of life, or supplies, or time to their captors, terms might almost seem favourable. Did any of this apply to the group of French soldiers left behind at San Sebastián?

The Geneva Conventions for the treatment of prisoners would not come into play for many years yet. Were the French San Sebastián prisoners interrogated? Offered the chance to become spies? Were there defectors, individuals who voluntarily wanted to change sides for ideological, personal, or political reasons? Were prisoners coerced into changing sides with threats of incarceration? Was this the kind of war that anyone wanted to be in in the first place? What else could there be? Could prisoners be bribed into changing sides? Were better conditions, better pay and larger shares in the booty enticing enough? What about a signing bonus? Was it really that mercenary?

Wikipedia, Peninsular Wars article: "...the French garrison retreated into the Citadel, which after a heavy bombardment their governor surrendered on 8 September, with the garrison marching out the next day with full military honours." Where did the garrison go when they walked out? What were the governor's terms of surrender?

ChatGPT: "The terms of surrender at San Sebastián in 1813 during the Peninsular War were negotiated between the French garrison inside the city and the British and Portuguese forces besieging it. The surrender of San Sebastian was a significant event in the war, and the terms were as follows:

Honors of War: The French garrison was granted the "honors of war." This meant that the French troops would be allowed to leave the city with their colors (flags), muskets, sidearms, and personal baggage. They were essentially allowed to march out with their military dignity intact.

Safe Passage: The surrender agreement included provisions for the safe passage of the French troops and civilians who were in the city at the time. They were to be allowed to withdraw from San Sebastian without being molested or harmed by the British and Portuguese forces.

Parole of Officers: The officers of the French garrison were often placed on parole. Parole meant that they were released under certain conditions, including an agreement not to take up arms again against the British and their allies for a specified period. Violating parole could result in severe consequences.

Capitulation of the Fortresses: Along with the surrender of the city of San Sebastián, the French also capitulated two adjacent fortresses, the Castillo de la Mota and the Chofre Redoubt, which were held by French forces.

Transfer of the City: Control of the city was handed over to the British and Portuguese forces, who subsequently occupied it.

The terms of surrender were negotiated between the British commander, Lieutenant General Sir Thomas Graham, and the French garrison commander, General Louis Emmanuel Rey. The surrender of San Sebastian was seen as a significant victory for the British and their allies, as the city had been a heavily fortified French stronghold, and its capture allowed them to make further advances in the Peninsular War."

To confirm... ChatGPT: "The French 22nd Line Infantry Regiment (22e Régiment d'Infanterie de Ligne) did indeed participate in the defense of San Sebastian... the surrender terms, as previously mentioned, allowed the French garrison to withdraw with honors of war."

According to these terms of surrender, if LW was part of the French garrison and was alive and uninjured after the month-long siege, he should have been able to continue in his present capacity of infantryman and leave the area in safety with his regiment. The 22nd was headed for the Kingdom of Saxony (Germany today), though, as part of the coming war effort there. This was not getting any closer to Nova Scotia and an 1814 arrival there would soon be in jeopardy, and would not be possible at all if LW was to stick it out until June 22nd, 1815 when the Napoleonic Wars would end.

Of the three paths LW had, two have now converged. The 22nd was on its way out of Spain. LW's other path, desertion, is still possible. And I now see one more possibility - that of being captured much earlier in the siege, as an individual, or as part of a smaller group. Their treatment may have been more like what was described above before the terms of surrender were negotiated on Sept. 8th. Several of the options afforded prisoners could see LW becoming detached from his regiment. If a prisoner, could he have defected? Could he have been coerced into changing sides? Could he have been persuaded to change for better conditions, better pay or signing money?

If only there were records to look through, lists of the personnel, of the dead or injured, of those present and those absent, records of transport and troop movements, payroll records - searchable online... Much is reported about the various organizational military groupings but are there records for the individuals, and are they online as yet?

ChatGPT: "A muster roll is an official list or register of members in a military unit or organization, typically used to record the personnel, their details, and other relevant information. Muster rolls have been a common feature in the organization and administration of armed forces throughout history, and they serve several important purposes:

Identification: Muster rolls are used to identify and document every member of a military unit. This includes their names, ranks, and sometimes additional details like age, birthplace, enlistment date, and physical characteristics.

Accountability: Muster rolls help ensure that every member of the unit is accounted for. This is crucial for maintaining discipline, tracking personnel changes (due to injuries, deaths, or transfers), and ensuring that everyone receives their pay and rations.

Pay and Benefits: Muster rolls are used in the process of paying soldiers and providing them with benefits and entitlements. Accurate records are essential to avoid issues with compensation and to prevent fraud or abuse.

Logistics: Muster rolls assist in logistical planning by providing an up-to-date roster of available personnel. This information helps military commanders allocate resources effectively and make decisions about deployments and assignments.

Historical Records: Muster rolls also serve as valuable historical records. They provide insights into the composition of military units at specific points in time, which can be useful for research, genealogy, and the study of military history."

Somewhen around 2015, made available searchable muster rolls for the British forces in the Napoleonic Wars (1807-1815). These wouldn't help find a French infantryman, though, or would they?

I subscribe to for a couple months each winter, but for this effort I had signed up for a trial of the European access in hopes of finding evidence of Jean Jacques (Jacob) Thibaut or Jean Joseph Thibaut in Europe that hadn't been brought forward before or evidence of Louis Joseph Wauthy that might put him in Canada, that might see him change his name to Thibaut to align with the DNA test result that sparked all of this.

With this trial membership, I did have incidental access to's "UK, British Army Muster Books and Pay Lists, 1812-1817". On the off chance Louis Wauthy would somehow be on the British payroll after surrendering at San Sebastián, I tried a search. What came back surprised me.

UK, British Army Muster Books and Pay Lists, 1812-1817




Not having seen this book in person, the blank pages in the book suggest that it has pre-organized, pre-printed, non-removable pages for the various people responsible to make transcribed entries into it. The proportion of width to height resembles legal size paper, 8.5" x 14". With some pages oriented as landscape and some portrait, the design probably evolved over time, with the order and contents of the book changing as the documentation of new information became necessary and older reports became obsolete. The writing looks quill-made.

Some pages have a line that reads: "Teape, Printer, Tower-hill, London, for His Majesty's Stationery-Office." In certain images, eight stitches can be seen holding the pages of a section together, with the sections bound to the cover. Glue was not commonly used for binding. The cover looks generic for the era, probably thin leather stretched tightly over paperboard, commonly-used marble design.

The link may require a membership to function. If you don't have one, you may get a teaser result.

UK, British Army Muster Books and Pay Lists, 1812-1817

7th battalion of the 60th (Royal American) British Regiment of Foot, enter Lewis Wauty...

In a search for just the name Louis Wauthy at, with no other qualifiers, I was directed to a record for a "Lewis Wauty", an Anglicized version of the French name.

"in the UK, British Army Muster Books and Pay Lists, 1812-1817 for Lewis Wauty, Infantry, Piece 07088: 60th Foot 7th Battalion (1813-1815)"

On September 10th, 1813, after being held as a prisoner of war for an unspecified time, LW had signed up with the British Army with quite a number of other foreign prisoners, of deserters, in a new battalion of the 60th Regiment of Foot, often referred to as the 7th/60th.

ChatGPT: "After their capture, these soldiers had a choice to remain in captivity, be repatriated to France as prisoners of war, or enlist in the service of their captors. Many chose the latter option and joined the British army. French soldiers who enlisted in the English (British) army after the Siege of San Sebastián in 1813 were often retrained and integrated into British units. "

The location in the muster book was Sandown, on the Isle of Wight.

ChatGPT: "During the Napoleonic Wars (1803-1815), the British government established several prisoner-of-war depots on the Isle of Wight to accommodate French and other enemy prisoners. These depots were responsible for detaining, guarding, and managing the prisoners. Conditions in these depots varied, and prisoners often faced hardships, including overcrowding, inadequate shelter, and insufficient rations. The treatment of prisoners of war during this period was a complex issue, influenced by factors such as the ongoing conflict, logistics, and diplomatic relations between nations."

To back this up a step, it is believed that the San Sebastián prisoners of war were on the Isle of Wight for at least a day when recruited, which would have meant that LW had surrendered or deserted and was captured an amount of time before September 10th, before the siege ended on September 8th, in fact. A period ship traveling at an average speed of 5 knots would cover 9.26 kilometers per hour. ChatGPT estimates the sailing time from San Sebastián to the Isle of Wight might be one to two weeks when factoring in wind and weather, the amount of daylight, ship load, crew skill and ship design - without logistics considerations like organizing a load of prisoners while preparing and provisioning a transport ship for the days ahead. The distance across the Bay of Biscay and up the English Channel is about 1,000 km. This would put the date of LW's actual surrender or capture into late August.

What is surprising is the fact that Lewis Wauty had signed for seven years. Either being a prisoner of war was worse than enlisting again or LW didn't mind being employed in the military. Overcrowding and unsanitary conditions on the Isle may have helped LW decide. His behaviour in the 7th/60th would tell the tale.

His signing, at this point in time and at this location, seems to put to bed the idea that Louis Joseph Wauthy came to Canada aboard a Spanish fishing boat. It does, however, confirm for a second time that he was a deserter of the French Army.

"Payments made on account of deserters..."

This page's headers look handwritten (harder-to-read), on smaller-sized blank hand-lined paper.

This list of names, with the first page dated August 30th (image 40 in the set), the Wauty page dated September 10th (image 46 in the set), and the summary page dated September 13th (image 52 in the set), is comprised of 355 names, grouped by enlistment date and alphabetically within that, suggesting some kind of transcription from other records. Pencilled-in notes show a calculation for 355 x £4 or £1420, plus £71 for a total of £1491. The £71 would be 4 shillings per man, with 20 shillings to a pound. An additional £17 75s would fit a calculation of 1 shilling per name, perhaps shown in error as £17 15s.

This next page (below, not shown in full, click it to view) confirms the count of 355 and the status of these "volunteers" as having been prisoners of war. They were received from the 2nd and 3rd Battalions of the 95th Regiment.

Paraphrasing ChatGPT: "Yes, the 2nd and 3rd Battalions of the 95th Regiment participated in the siege of San Sebastián. The 95th Rifles were known for their expertise in marksmanship and light infantry tactics."

The site has a letter written by the Commander-in-Chief, the Right Honourable Lord Bathurst to the Secretary At War requesting the regiment's formation from some 1,200 "eligible subjects", German, French and other prisoners of war, who would sign up for 7 years' service for "the usual Bounty of four Guineas per man", in actuality 4 pounds 4 shillings per man (a guinea being equal to £1 1s), with another shilling paid to the bringer for each recruit, who could attest for the recruit. (I believe those recruits that needed them also got new shoes.) Bathurst wanted also to offer the recruits "the eventual grant of land in Canada after a service of five years".

The outfit would be called the 7th Battalion, 60th Regiment of Foot, with plans for its deployment in North America, initially for the war with the Americans (again) that would one day be called the War of 1812. Canada, as a British colony, was already in the fight. The battalion was raised under the command of Lieutenant-Colonel Henry John, formerly of the 95th Rifles.

See more re-enactment images of the 7th Battalion, 60th 'Royal American' Regiment at the Mississinewa 1812 website.

With information from The 7th/60th was so formed from a mixture of 840 Germans, Dutchmen, Swiss, Frenchmen and Hungarians. The non-French had been forced to fight for Napoleon's army. Details about the 7th's uniforms and equipment can be found here.

A book written by Nesbit Willoughby Wallace, Captain, 60th Royal Rifles, with the long title "Regimental Chronicle and List of Officers of The 60th, or The King's Royal Rifle Corps, formerly The 62nd, or The Royal Americam Regiment of Foot", published in London in 1879, interestingly by "Harrison, 59, Pall Mall, "bookseller to the Queen and H.R.H. the Prince of Wales" has a number of photos and illustrations - one of which is shown above, beside the re-enactment photo. The book's text and images are viewable online. A passage in it confirms information from other sources. Page 49: "September 1, 1813, Seventh Rifle Battalion was raised in Guernsey and formed of the German prisoners of war. It consisted of 840 rank and file, i.e. 640 Light Infantry, 200 Rifles."

Between the pages numbered 50 and 51 is a protective tissue covering a set of three drawings. The leftmost is the uniform of the 7th/60th as it was copied from the 5th/60th. The 7th would receive approval for green pants also. Noted for 1816, "The dress of the Regiment was changed this year to green jacket with short skirts, lapels lined with scarlet, scarlet cuffs and collars, two buttons on each; two rows of buttons in front , a gold bugle on the skirts, wings of gold chain and bullion, green pantaloons, and a cap of regulation pattern." This contradicts the description that the 7th started out with green pants.

In the book, the 60th, initially depôted in America, was depôted from 1763 (the end of the Seven Years' War) through 1823 on The Isle of Wight.

ChatGPT: "In military terminology, the term "Depôt" refers to a location or facility used as a headquarters or base for the storage of supplies, administration, and recruitment activities for a particular regiment or military unit. In the context of the British 60th Regiment, "Depôt - Isle of Wight" signifies that the Isle of Wight served as the central base or depot for the regiment's administrative, logistical, and training functions. The Depôt on the Isle of Wight was likely where activities such as recruiting, training, and organizing soldiers for deployment or reassignment took place. It was a central hub for the regiment's operational and administrative functions."

ChatGPT: "During the Napoleonic Wars, the Isle of Wight was used as a location for housing prisoners of war."

Chatham Barracks, on the River Medway...

A fellow researcher who is also a military historian (initials EW), informs us that the untrained 7th/60th was housed "briefly at Chatham Barracks in Kent before being stationed on Guernsey until March the following year".

Link to a bird's eye view painting of Chatham Dockyard, by Joseph Farington, created between 1785 and 1794. Look to magnify the image for greater detail. The large Chatham Barracks are shown on the right side. Below is about 20% of the full image, Chatham Barracks. There are several other images of the Dockyards that can be viewed at the Wikipedia link.

Chatham Barracks military base is located about 45 km. SE of London on the River Medway. Isle of Wight to Chatham Barracks: 300 km. Chatham Barracks to Guernsey Island: 450 km. With a sailing speed in fair weather and daylight of perhaps 15 km /hr, 11 hours per day, sailing time looks to be 2 days and 3 days respectively.

Q: What went on in Chatham England pertaining to the British military in the early 1800's?

ChatGPT: "In the early 1800s, Chatham in England was a significant naval and military center, playing a crucial role in supporting the British military. Chatham Dockyard, located on the River Medway, was one of the Royal Navy's principal dockyards and shipbuilding facilities during this period. Key aspects of Chatham's military significance in the early 1800s include:

Chatham Dockyard: The dockyard at Chatham was established in the 16th century and became a major shipbuilding and repair facility for the Royal Navy. In the early 1800s, it was heavily involved in the construction, repair, and maintenance of naval vessels. The dockyard played a vital role during times of war, such as the Napoleonic Wars, by providing the navy with the ships needed for its campaigns.

Naval Operations: Chatham played a role in supporting naval operations, and ships built or repaired at Chatham were often involved in significant naval engagements. During the Napoleonic Wars (1803-1815), the Royal Navy, with Chatham as a key facility, played a crucial role in maintaining a blockade against the French fleet, controlling the seas and contributing to the overall British military strategy.

Defensive Infrastructure: Chatham's strategic location on the River Medway made it important for the defense of southeastern England. The area had defensive fortifications, including the Chatham Lines, which were earthwork fortifications constructed to protect the dockyard from land-based attacks.

Military Presence: Chatham was not only a naval center but also had a military presence. The town housed barracks and garrisons for soldiers who were stationed to protect the dockyard and support naval operations.

Innovation and Technology: Chatham Dockyard was known for its contributions to shipbuilding technology and innovation. It was a place where new ship designs and construction techniques were developed, contributing to the ongoing modernization of the Royal Navy.

The early 1800s were a time of great naval expansion and conflict for Britain, and Chatham played a central role in supporting the maritime and military activities of the British Empire during this period. The dockyard continued to be important throughout the 19th century, adapting to changes in naval technology and warfare."

Battalion training on Channel Island Guernsey...

By November, the battalion was on the Channel Island of Guernsey being trained as light infantry.

Guernsey, a small triangular island of just 75 sq. km, about 100 km from the Isle of Wight, was well fortified on all sides. The training camp could have been near any of the existing fortifications or off by itself. An illustrated book called The History of the Island of Guernsey... by William Berry may contain relevant info to help with where exactly on the island LW was. A map in the book dated 1814 is well labeled. Once a name can be put on the location of the training camp, this map should show it. Use its navigational tools to enlarge.

ChatGPT: Training for the 7th Battalion, 60th Regiment of Foot would have included: 

"Drill and Discipline: The foundation of military training at the time was drill and discipline. Soldiers would undergo regular drills to learn and master close-order formations, maneuvers, and the use of their weapons. Discipline was enforced to maintain order and ensure soldiers followed commands promptly.

Weapons Training: Soldiers would receive extensive training in the use of their weapons, which typically included muskets and bayonets. This training aimed to make soldiers proficient in loading, firing, and maintaining their firearms, as well as engaging in bayonet combat.

Physical Conditioning: Physical fitness was crucial for soldiers, and training often included marching, running, and other physical exercises to ensure that the troops were in good shape for the demands of military campaigns.

Tactical Training: Soldiers were trained in tactical formations and movements to prepare them for engagements on the battlefield. This training included learning how to advance, retreat, form defensive lines, and maneuver as a cohesive unit.

Camp and Fieldcraft: Soldiers would be trained in various aspects of fieldcraft, including setting up and breaking down camp, navigation, and survival skills. This was essential for military operations in different environments.

Regimental Activities: Regimental life involved more than just training for battle. Soldiers would participate in various regimental activities, including parades, inspections, and ceremonies, fostering a sense of identity and camaraderie within the unit.

Specialized Training: Depending on the battalion's role and the skills needed, soldiers might receive specialized training. This could include training for marksmen, engineers, or other roles required for the specific mission."

"Monthly Return" reports for the 7th/60th...

In catching up with documentation provided by EW, I have been able to gather together more of the British military history of Louis Joseph Wauthy aka Lewis Wauty.

These Monthly Return reports came to me as several images for each month, typically four with some re-shot duplicates, for the period September 1813 on into 1815. This is the period of interest for LW, from his signing up to the end of the wars he had been drafted into.

The pamphlet-sized covers have some helpful information on them and there is meaningful information within. (I suppose these open out in some manner, but I have never seen one in overview.) The location of the battalion headquarters at the time, a count of batallion personnel, a breakdown by origin and occupation. Other pages report on comings and goings, state of health, inventory of material things, and if there have been inspections, the reports are typically included.

Note that the date of changeover month-to-month is the 25th in each case. The pages are pre-printed and can be filled out by entering information in the appropriate places.

These are the Monthly Return report covers for the months September 1813 through June 1815. Hover over an image to identify, then click to enlarge.

The 7th was shown as headquartered on the Isle of Wight on its first two monthly reports - September and October 1813.

A memorandum from the payroll muster book is of some interest. It states that no companies had been formed as of Sept. 24th so pay from a company could not be issued. The pay looks like it was to come from the company that enlisted the individual recruits. Whether or not the pay came on time may have become a point of contention for all of the recruits, something any government worker can understand. Once formed, Lewis Wauty would be assigned to Company 4.

The November 1813 report shows the headquarters as Guernsey. The 7th/60th was there until March of 1814. For all of the linguistic difficulties, the battalion was finally ready for active service. The size of the battalion's rank and file had grown from an initial 360 up to 812 at its peak as reported on March 25th.

The March 1814 Monthly Return (dated as they all are on the 25th of the month) shows the headquarters to be "Cove of ", referring to Cove, a natural harbor in County Cork, on the south coast of Ireland, which puts Lewis Wauty there awaiting transport to Nova Scotia with his battalion. Known as Queenstown from 1849 until 1920 and the Irish War of Independence, the name became Cobh (Irish, pronounced Cove) at that time. Cove (Queenstown) had historical significance as a strategic naval and military location in the 19th century. It served as a major base for the British Royal Navy and was an important transatlantic port for the British Empire. Ships and troops destined for North America, including Canada and the Maritimes, often departed from Cove (Queenstown)." Cobh is known for being the Titanic's last port of call in 1912.

This next snip has several items of interest. It reads: "MONTHLY RETURN of the 7th Batt. 60th Regiment of Foot of which His Royal Highness the Duke of York is Colonel. Head-Quarters on board the Benson Transport, Cove of Cork, 25th of March, 1814." If indeed the Benson was a transport ship, it may have taken more than one ship to transport a battalion comprised of 900 souls. The Benson could have been the vessel in command, though. Travel time from Guernsey Island to Cove of Cork is estimated to be 4 to 5 days.

On the March Monthly Return cover, note the new categories: men (19 and older), lads from 15 to 18, boys under 15. Service for life, or service for a limited time (7 years). The military could be a way of life for some. Also note the composition - English, Scotch and Irish were separated from foreigners. The reported numbers don't seem to add up in any way, suffice to say that almost the entire battalion is comprised of foreigners as was originally intended.

April's Monthly Return, dated April 25th, 1814 shows the headquarters to be "at sea". May's return, dated May 25th, 1814 also states the headquarters to still be "at sea".

The June Monthly Return, dated June 25th, 1814, and the subsequent reports through April 25th, 1815 all show the battalion's headquarters to be Halifax.

Refining the dates of departure and arrival...

It is difficult to be any more precise with just the Monthly Returns than to say that something happened between the 26th of one month and the 25th of the month following. To refine the date of arrival in Halifax, I turned to Nova Scotia Archives and the pages of the Acadian Recorder.

The Acadian Recorder, described in its own October 22nd, 1814 edition as being "a pure English paper, without any American feelings about it, and which undoubtedly speaks the sentiments of the British Naval and Military Officers who support it", is considered to be a "newspaper of record" in Halifax.

Published weekly, the May 28th and June 4th editions contain pertinent information in the "Ship News" section.

Volume 2, Number 22, page 3, May 28th, 1814, SHIP NEWS, Halifax, May 27... "arr. brigs Brothers, Jane, and Star, Capt. Disbrow, from Liverpool; brig Forth, from Glasgow; Transport ship Rolo, and Matilda; Transport ship Regulus, from off New-London. The above vessels are part of the fleet which sailed from Cork, 10th April, under convoy of H.M. ships Leander and Hamdryad. One Company of Artillery, and 7th battalion of the 60th regt. were in the fleet, for this Garrison and troops for Canada." (Note: Nova Scotia didn't join Canada until July 1, 1867.)

Volume 2 Number 23, page 3, June 4th, 1814, SHIP NEWS, Halifax, May 28, to June 1... "Also arr. L'Espoir, Capt. Russell, from Cork -- Curlew capt. Head, from a cruise -- transport ships Benson, and Matilda, (ditto)". So, the Benson is a transport ship, it did leave from Cork and arrive in Halifax, and it was accompanied by the Matilda, 900 men in the Battalion probably divided across these two vessels.

These are great articles with lots of colour, worth reading in their entirety.

Refined, the 7th/60th leaves Cove of Cork on April 10th, 1814, aboard two transport ships - the Benson and the Matilda.

A painting that may be of the Matilda later in the 19th century can be viewed in full size here.

The Benson may be the ship described at Wikipedia on this page.

During April and May, the battalion was transported to Halifax, with the Matilda arriving first, on May 27th, and the Benson arriving the following day (May 28th).

Louis Joseph Wauthy has arrived in Nova Scotia, as part of the 7th/60th battalion, on either the Benson or the Matilda, on May 27th or May 28th, 1814.

Their mission, aside from the No. 1 and No. 10 companies, "...the remainder of the battalion guarded Nova Scotia against American seaborne raids until the conclusion of the war; companies were concentrated in Halifax and Annapolis Royal".

Battalion inspection, June, 1814...

To compress by a few more days the chronological gap between the last record of LW and the first record of JJT, there is note of an inspection of the 7th Battalion, 60th Foot in Halifax in June, 1814 at that speaks of difficulties with language and retraining. In an inspection report dated June 25th, 1814, Major General Duncan Darroch writes that on the "23d" he inspected the 7th/60th. This image snip confirms this.

Notable comments in the report include: (paraphrased) that the men have received the written rules and regulations but can't read English; that the men can be paid for the month of June but March, April and May will have to wait until the PayMaster arrives; the latest 45 recruits were still owed their bounty; the officers, non-commissioned officers and men are dressed in green; this battalion has no regimental school; the men regularly attend divine service on Sunday held by the garrison chaplain, other denominations are marched to their several places of worship.

Darroch would write a report in November after an inspection in October 1814 also. The reports are created twice yearly.

The reports are written in a fashion that reminds me of boilerplate paragraphs. Sometimes the wording is identical from one report to the next, or very close to it. The sequence of items addressed appears to be fixed, with a topic shown in the margin (like Adjutant, Paymaster, Buglers, Clothing, or Ammunition - probably so that nothing gets missed.

These are the pages of the June 25th inspection report. Click to enlarge. They can be read through to learn more about this battalion and the times.

Brief summary of relevant dates to this point, derived from the Monthly Returns...

The Monthly Return report dates can be used to figure out where members of the 7th/60th likely were between the formation of the battalion and the end of the two conflicts LW had been drafted into - the War of 1812 which ended in January 1815 and the Napoleonic wars which ended in June 1815.

We are, after all, trying to put Louis Joseph Wauthy, aka Lewis Wauty, into Jean Jacques (Jacob) Thibeau's shoes 10 years before JJT petitioned for a land grant in Cape Breton in 1824. This timeframe brackets the correct year.

The fact that there is a large gap in the dates of the Monthly Returns leaves one to speculate as to when in the month certain events actually took place. Take "awaiting transport to Canada" as an example. The battalion left Guernsey for Cove of Cork on February 26th or after. There would be a certain amount of travel time. Arrival in Cove of Cork occurred by March 25th. The 7th waited to be loaded aboard a transport ship. The sea crossing typically took weeks to months, depending on ship size and type, convoy speed limitations, winds and weather, trouble en route and stops. The May 25 monthly report showed they hadn't arrived as yet, but the June 25th report shows they had, just not when exactly between these dates. Other reports and documentation are needed to make the timeline any more precise.

Because we have the two Acadian Recorder articles in hand, I have included their revelations in this table.

Note: this table, primarily built with information from the monthly reports, will be refined, corrected and expanded as more material is presented below. To jump to the most complete and correct summary of LW's location in time, click here, or continue to take in the events in the order they were discovered.

Dates and events determined by examining these Monthly Returns for the 7th/60th Battalion
Headquarters Location
Rank and File numbers
September 25, 1813 through October 25, 1813, British prisoner of war facility
Isle of Wight
361 grew to 576
contributor EW: "briefly at Chatham Barracks in Kent before being stationed on Guernsey until March the following year"
(source document tbd)
November 25, 1813 through February 25, 1814, infantry training
Channel Island of Guernsey
grown to 760
by March 25, 1814, awaiting transport to Canada, headquarters on the transport ship Benson
Cove of Cork, Ireland
grown to 812
April 25, 1814 through May 25, 1814, transport to Canada
At Sea
812 dips to 811

by end of May, 1814, the battalion arrives in Halifax

the 7th/60th is assigned the task of guarding Nova Scotia and its waters from American assault
June, 1814, battalion inspection
June 25, 1814 through November 25, 1814, manning the Halifax Garrison, deployments
809, down to 785
October 25, 1814 through March 25, 1815, Company 2 is deployed to Cape Breton
785, 67 deployed to Cape Breton
by April 25, 1815 Cape Breton deployment location is now noted as being Sydney, the town
781, 67 deployed to Sydney
May, 1815 through December, 1815, a deployment to Sydney was maintained
781, up to 70 deployed to Sydney

Deployment to Cape Breton, 7th Battalion, Company 2...

Between September 26th and October 25th, 1814, officers and 67 privates of Company 2 are deployed to Cape Breton, Nova Scotia. It would take a sailing ship traveling at 5 to 7 knots one- to two weeks to complete the 200 knot journey, prevailing Westerleys and fair weather permitting. The deployment will remain there until at least December 25th, 1815 with numbers rising to 70 briefly then falling back to 68 at year's end.

On the October 31, 1814, Field Return, Captain E.B. Eberstein (age 35, 10 3/4 years service, had been with the 7th since at least June of 1814) is absent, "on command at Cape Breton". Ensign Charles Harris is also "on command in Cape Breton".

Monthly reports beginning in April, 1815 indicate that the deployment was to Sydney, the town rather than the county.

This deployment to Cape Breton could have been of special interest to this story if LW had been deployed there, deserted there, and made his way to Manchester, Sydney County from there, perhaps passing through the River Bourgeois area en route.

One bit of information came to be understood when studying the payroll lists that prevents this from being true - for the moment anyway. LW had been assigned to Company 4 after the companies had first been formed near the end of September 1813. The company that had been deployed to Cape Breton was Company 2. There are notes beside the entries for all of the privates in Company 2, beginning in October, 1814, that state they are "On Command at Cape Breton". (This note would eventually be refined to "On Command at Sydney" in April, 1815.)

There were other deployments for members of the 7th/60th, beginning in July of 1814. Locations included: Annapolis, Birch Cove, Fort Charlotte, Fort Clarence, Fort Cumberland (new Brunswick/Nova Scotia border), Halifax Jail, Harbour Posts, Maugher's Beach, Melville Island (military prison), Point Pleasant, Prince Edward Island and 10 Mile House. All but Annapolis, Fort Cumberland, Prince Edward Island and Cape Breton were in the immediate vicinity of Halifax.

Two noted deployments without specific location were described as "working at the roads" and "on command with a dispatch" (which I take to mean sent to deliver a message). In December, 1814, one man was deployed "at Canada" i.e. outside Nova Scotia. The largest deployment noted was 132 men to Annapolis in January, 1815. Perhaps LW was sent to one or another of these places at some point during his service rather than being in Halifax the whole time.

Details about the deployment to the outpost at Cape Breton can help with overall comprehension of the times LW lived in, so they have been included here.

Regarding Sydney, the county or the town... From the Nova Scotia Archives county maps page, "Sydney County was created in 1784 to administer the eastern mainland of Nova Scotia (now Antigonish and Guysborough Counties). During the years 1824-36, Sydney County was divided into defined upper and lower districts; the Lower District of Sydney became Guysborough County in 1836; the Upper District reverted to the original name (Sydney County), which was changed to Antigonish County in 1863." "Sydney (the town) was founded in 1785 by the British. Sydney served as the Cape Breton Island's colonial capital, until 1820, when the colony merged with Nova Scotia and the capital moved to Halifax."

A thesis found on the Internet called Orphan Outpost: Cape Breton Colony 1781+-1820 written by Robert J. Morgan has a comment in it confirming that it was Sydney, the town, that the 7th/60th was deployed to in 1814-1815, taking this question off the table. This thesis looks to have other good information in it for future reading. The Google search result for the title of this thesis provides a link to directly download the 286-page thesis from the University of Ottawa (page 208 to start).

Acting Lieutenant Governor Hugh Swayne "hoped for military support from Halifax. No help came from that quarter, however; for though the ill-clothed, neglected 104th Regiment (The New Brunswick Fencibles) had been withdrawn, and Halifax sent another company to relieve them, Swayne would not tolerate their inefficient state. He could not get them replaced until 1814 when a Company of the 7th (Battalion) of the 60th Regiment was sent, though they were on call for removal without warning."

It would be the goings on in the area, along and off the coast, in Sydney Harbour and for the 300-resident town itself, that the 7th was there for. Food, firewood and other supplies would come from the town of 300 people and other area residents.

A very high resolution map found online (MacInlay's Map of The Province of Nova Scotia, 1865) shows points of interest. Give it time to load when zooming in and out. A map of this quality and date will have relative accuracy compared to earlier maps, but sought-after names may be absent or just be different.

An 1815 Sketch of the Military Ground at Sydney is available for viewing at the Nova Scotia Archives. Noted locations on the sketch are: Jail, Guard Room, Artillery Barrack, Magazine, Commissariat Store, Officer's Barrack, Soldier's Barrack and Canteen. Site of the old barrack and site proposed for the new barrack speaks to how long the post is expected to be there. The battery consisted of: 2.6 and 2.10 pounders. Redoubt mounting for 2.6 and 2.10 pounders.

(ChatGPT: A redoubt is a type of fortification or defensive structure designed to provide protection and cover for soldiers. Redoubts are typically small, enclosed defensive positions, often shaped like a square or polygon, and can be used as temporary or semi-permanent defensive positions during battle or in strategic locations. A redoubt may mount several types of defensive structures or artillery, including cannons or artillery pieces, mounted guns, or other small arms." In any case, we are not talking about sixty-seven men and officers living in tents or roughing it on the ground in all weather.

ChatGPT: "Rations often included basic food items such as hardtack (a type of durable biscuit), salted or preserved meat, dried peas or beans, flour, and occasionally rice or vegetables. Soldiers might also have received a supply of rum or other spirits as part of their daily allowances for drink. The availability of fresh food or supplements to their basic rations might have depended on local resources or trade, and soldiers might have occasionally foraged or purchased additional food or drink to supplement their standard rations."

I take it that the guns could be pointed seaward in defense of the harbour and town. A map in the thesis on page 67 does not show its location, but it is stated in the thesis that, in the absence of help from Halifax, "some of the rum revenue was used to re-build the redoubt and barracks near the mines and South Bar". The mines were closer to the opening of the harbour to the Atlantic, to Spanish (or Spaniard's) Bay, on the north side. South Bar can readily be found on maps. This location would protect the Southwest Arm where the town was located. This information from seems to fit: "Fort Prince Edward, (1794-1854), South Bar. Initially only a guardhouse and magazine. Known locally as Fort Gow or Fort Guion. A blockhouse was built in 1813, demolished in 1862. The actual spot of the post has since been eroded away." The harbour is less than 3 km wide for much of it. Solid-shot 2.10 pound guns had a range of about half the distance across the harbour.